I gave a guest lecture yesterday on the topic of ‘Action’ in Music Psychology. This was for a colleague/friend, Trevor Agus, who runs a course called Music Psychology for students enrolled on Music programmes in the School of Arts, English and Languages. We amuse ourselves that he teaches Music Psychology to music students, while I teach Psychology of Music to psychology students. This was the second time I have given this class.
It is an odd thing for me to teach a class on Psychology of Action to music students, not least because I almost could have become a music student myself at one point in my life. Instead, I became a student of philosophy and psychology, and then movement, and then movement in music, etc. Ah, well. It feels very different trying to impart a message about motor coordination and skill acquisition to musicians than to impart the same message to psychologists. The things that feel the need for emphasis differ, and the ideas that capture the room differ too.
One idea from the class that I was happily reminded of in preparing for it is the complex challenge of musicians coordinating with each other in ensemble performance. It is a miraculous thing enough that one nervous-muscular-skeletal system can coordinate its own behaviour to give rise to musical performance, but it is even more miraculous that many of these systems can not only coordinate their own sounding actions, but also coordinate with each others’ actions. Much of the research into this phenomenon is focussed on either measuring timing between musicians (e.g. the correlations of note interval variations between musicians), or on identifying the perceptual signals that might support musicians in the task of interpersonal musical coordination. In the latter case, the visual cues from body movements and gestures (both intentional and unintentional) seem to play a pretty big part in helping musicians to stay coordinated with each other while enacting a performance.
An example of this that I used in the class is from a concert by the Penguin Cafe Orchestra filmed for the BBC in the mid-80s. In the performance of Air á Danser, a section of the piece involves the group slowing down together a couple of times, then speeding back up to resume the flow of the music. Simon Jeffes, the leader of the group, conducts this process through a combination of head movements, eye contact and body gestures, with the result that around a dozen separate musicians are able to control the timing of their actions as a single unified system. The video clip of the whole track is embedded below, and the section in particular begins at around 1:05. It’s a lovely example of multisensory interpersonal coordination in musical performance, as well as being a very charming piece of music (in my opinion, at least).